Mid Hudson News: Pace Study of Potential Dutchess Fire Department Consolidation Complete

The results of a study by Pace University exploring the feasibility of consolidation of the Fairview Fire District with five other departments in Dutchess County will be released next week.

From Mid-Hudson News:

The results of a study by Pace University exploring the feasibility of enhancing cooperation or consolidation of services provided by the Fairview Fire District in the towns of Poughkeepsie and Hyde Park with five other departments in Dutchess County will be released next week.

A state grant funded the study conducted by the Michaelian Institute at Pace will not make any recommendations, but rather provide findings, said principal investigator Michael Genito.

Read more here.

New Pace Study Documents Levi’s Extensive Behavioral Targeting of Consumers

A researcher at Pace University has found solid evidence that Levis.com — in an example of a common practice — collects data on the browsing activities of consumers in order to target them for more online advertising. The study makes explicit the scale of behavioral tracking being conducted by mainstream companies like Levi’s.

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Contact: Bill Caldwell, Office of Public Information, Pace University, 212-346-1597, wcaldwell@pace.edu

Privacy issues wear jeans

NEW PACE STUDY DOCUMENTS LEVI’S EXTENSIVE BEHAVIORAL TARGETING OF CONSUMERS

Congressional hearings Thursday

Public debate heats up with Federal Trade Commission concerns

Researcher says “camouflaging the tracking of consumers can damage the perceived trustworthiness of an e-commerce site . . . and undermines the autonomy of consumers in their online shopping and purchase decisions.”

New York, NY – June 17, 2009 – A researcher at Pace University has found solid evidence that Levis.com — in an example of a common practice — collects data on the browsing activities of consumers in order to target them for more online advertising. The study makes explicit the scale of behavioral tracking being conducted by mainstream companies like Levi’s.

The study comes just as the House Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade and Consumer Protection prepares to hold hearings tomorrow (Thursday, June 18th) at 10 am: http://energycommerce.house.gov/index.php?option=com_jcalpro&Itemid=54&extmode=view&extid=60

Dwyer contacted Levi Strauss & Co in February to get the company’s comments on her findings but as of June 16 had received no response.

Unacknowledged tags. The study found that Levi’s places nine digital tags in the browsers of web site visitors, using these tags to track and aggregate consumer behavior and target additional messages, and allowing eight third-party companies to do the same.

None of the tags or other companies is acknowledged in the Levi’s privacy policy.

“This new study makes transparent the extent of behavioral tracking being conducted even by a ‘true blue’ company like Levi’s that stands for American individualism and freedom,” says the researcher, Catherine Dwyer, Ph.D., an associate professor at Pace University’s Seidenberg School of Computer Science and Information Systems.

“Hidden persuaders.” For businesses, she says camouflaging the tracking of consumers can damage the perceived trustworthiness of an e-commerce site or the firm it represents.

For consumers, Dwyer says the advertising triggered by this latest generation of the ‘hidden persuaders’ made notorious by the 1957 book of that name by Vance Packard “undermines the autonomy of consumers in their online shopping and purchase decisions.”

This is the first academic study of behavioral targeting that describes the scale of these practices and questions the risks they pose for e-commerce.

To document the tracking mechanisms, Dwyer used freely available software including TamperData, a Firefox extension that logs all transactions with a browser.

Dwyer argues that “The Levi’s brand has a long association with American values of independence and autonomy. Levi’s use of behavioral targeting directly contradicts the values that serve as a foundation of customer trust in the Levi’s brand. The perceptions of integrity and benevolence that e-commerce sites labor to establish can be seriously damaged by behavioral targeting in its current state.”

“For customers who associate blue jeans with American independence and freedom, Levi’s pervasive use of Web beacons and ongoing data collection with unidentified marketing partners may come as a shock.”

She adds: “In a consumer driven market, even the appearance of deceptive practices carries a great risk, and can result in a public relations nightmare.”

Cybercitizenship. Public debate on this issue is heating up dramatically. Recently Jon Leibowitz, the chair of the Federal Trade Commission, warned online advertisers that they need to constrain this activity or regulation will increase. Online advertisers, Dwyer says, are protesting that restricting this type of tracking will be a burden and resisting any regulatory moves.

Dwyer, who teaches courses in “Cybercitizenship: Ethics and the Internet” and “Systems Analysis and Design” will present her paper at the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems in San Francisco on August 8. It is available at http://csis.pace.edu/~dwyer/research/AMCISDwyer2009.pdf

Dwyer’s previous research on trust and privacy concerns within social networking sites has been published in scholarly journals, presented at international conferences, and cited in Agence France Presse, Computerworld, La Opinión, the New York Times, and the Washington Post.

For 103 years Pace University has produced thinking professionals by providing high quality education for the professions on a firm base of liberal learning amid the advantages of the New York metropolitan area. A private university, Pace has campuses in New York City and Westchester County, New York, enrolling nearly 13,000 students in bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral programs in its Lubin School of Business, Dyson College of Arts and Sciences, Lienhard School of Nursing, School of Education, School of Law, and Seidenberg School of Computer Science and Information Systems. www.pace.edu

White Tea better than green tea?

New studies conducted at Pace University, have indicated that White Tea Extract (WTE) may have prophylactic applications in retarding growth of bacteria that cause Staphylococcus infections, Streptococcus infections, pneumonia and dental caries. The effect of WTE was determined by observing zones of inhibition of bacteria grown on Mueller Hinton II Agar (Kirby-Bauer technique). In regard to bacterial virus inactivation, White Tea was more effective than green tea. Results obtained with the bacterial virus, a model system; suggest that WTE may have an anti-viral effect on human pathogenic viruses. The addition of White Tea Extract to various toothpastes enhanced the anti-microbial effect of these oral agents.

Contact: Mary E. Horgan 914-923-2798 mhorgan@pace.edu

White Tea better than green tea?
NEW STUDY SHOWS THAT WHITE TEA HAS AN INHIBITORY EFFECT ON VARIOUS PATHOGENIC BACTERIA, FUNGI AND BACTERIAL VIRUS.

Anti-Viral and Anti-Bacterial effect of Toothpaste is enhanced by adding White Tea Extract.

New York, NY – May 23, 2004 – New studies conducted at Pace University, have indicated that White Tea Extract (WTE) may have prophylactic applications in retarding growth of bacteria that cause Staphylococcus infections, Streptococcus infections, pneumonia and dental caries. The effect of WTE was determined by observing zones of inhibition of bacteria grown on Mueller Hinton II Agar (Kirby-Bauer technique). In regard to bacterial virus inactivation, White Tea was more effective than green tea. Results obtained with the bacterial virus, a model system; suggest that WTE may have an anti-viral effect on human pathogenic viruses. The addition of White Tea Extract to various toothpastes enhanced the anti-microbial effect of these oral agents.

Studies have also indicated that WTE has an anti-fungal effect on Penicillium chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the presence of WTE, Penicillium spores and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells were totally inactivated. It is suggested that WTE may have an anti-fungal effect on pathogenic fungi.

“Past studies have shown that green tea stimulates the immune system to fight disease,” says Milton Schiffenbauer, Ph.D., a microbiologist and professor in the Department of Biology at Pace University’s Dyson College of Arts & Sciences and primary author of the research. “Our research shows White Tea Extract can actually destroy in vitro the organisms that cause disease. Study after study with tea extract proves that it has many healing properties. This is not an old wives tale, it’s a fact.”

Several findings in the new study are of particular interest:

• The Anti-Viral and Anti-Bacterial effect of white tea (Stash and Templar) is greater than that of green tea.

• The anti-viral and anti-bacterial effect of several toothpastes including, Aim, Aquafresh, Colgate, Crest and Orajel were enhanced by the addition of White Tea Extract.

• White tea extract exhibited an anti-fungal effect on both Penicillium chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

• White Tea Extract may have application in the inactivation of pathogenic human microbes, i.e., bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

The results of this study will be presented at the 104th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology on May 23, New Orleans, Louisiana

Dr. Schiffenbauer can be reached at (212) 346-1968 or mschiffenbauer@pace.edu

Pace is a comprehensive, independent University with campuses in New York City and Westchester County, and a Hudson Valley Center located at Stewart Airport in New Windsor. Nearly 14,000 students are enrolled in undergraduate, graduate and professional degree programs in the Dyson College of Arts and Sciences, Lubin School of Business, School of Computer Science and Information Systems, School of Education, Lienhard School of Nursing and Pace Law School. (www.pace.edu)

New Study Shows Mutual Fund Rating Services Possess Little Ability to Predict Winning Funds

Although mutual fund rating services state that their ratings should not be used as signals of future performance, the simple fact is that investors and financial consultants do use the ratings to choose funds in which to invest. A new study, conducted by researchers at Pace University’s Lubin School of Business, concludes that mutual fund rating services like Morningstar and Value Line show little ability to predict winning funds, and cautions those who use ratings as signals of future performance.

Contact: Bill Caldwell, Office of Public Information, Pace University, 212-346-1597, wcaldwell@pace.edu

New Study Shows Mutual Fund Rating Services Possess Little Ability to Predict Winning Funds

New York, New York – January 15, 2003 – Although mutual fund rating services state that their ratings should not be used as signals of future performance, the simple fact is that investors and financial consultants do use the ratings to choose funds in which to invest. A new study, conducted by researchers at Pace University’s Lubin School of Business, concludes that mutual fund rating services like Morningstar and Value Line show little ability to predict winning funds, and cautions those who use ratings as signals of future performance.

“Investors should be very cautious about interpreting mutual fund ratings,” said Matthew Morey, Ph.D., associate professor of finance at the Lubin School and author of the study. “Ratings should be used as measures of past performance, and investors should remember that the ratings are of dubious help in terms of predicting future winning funds.”

The new Pace study examines two issues. First, the study documents the mutual fund ratings/rankings methodology of the Morningstar, Value Line and Lipper Analytical systems. Second, the study investigates the out-of-sample predictive ability of the Morningstar and Value Line ratings.

The findings are as follows:

1. Analyzing the ratings methodologies, the researchers find the Morningstar system “emphasizes expense, load and risk-adjusted returns where risk is defined as downside risk”. On the other hand, the Value Line system “emphasizes the persistence of fund performance, i.e., the ability of a fund to consistently out-perform other funds in terms of simple (non-expense, non-load, non-risk adjusted) returns. There is also a difference in the time horizons that the two systems examine: Morningstar uses a system that emphasizes a fund’s long-term performance (up to 10 years), while Value Line uses a shorter period of time (up to five years). While both Morningstar and Value Line rate mutual funds on a scale of 1 to 5, the Lipper Analytical system, conversely, separates funds into many styles that are determined by Lipper itself, and then ranks funds in each of the defined styles from top to bottom by their total return. Lipper does not provide any formal ratings for funds.”

2. In terms of the predictive ability of the Morningstar and Value Line ratings, the researchers use “an approach that is robust to survivorship bias and load-adjusted returns.” Furthermore, the researchers use four different measures of “out-of-sample” performance and also examine alternative ratings systems that are based on simpler methodology than the Morningstar and Value Line systems. The researches note three findings in this analysis:

a) “Neither of the ratings systems, nor the alternative ratings systems, are able to successfully predict winning funds. Specifically, the researchers find that the difference in out-of-sample performance between top-rated and median-rated funds is never significant with the correct signs and sometimes actually has the incorrect signs.”

b) “There is some ability using risk-adjusted measures to predict losing funds, as the lowest rated funds do have lower levels of out-of-sample performance than other funds.”

c) “There is some weak evidence that the Value Line system actually predicts future performance better than the Morningstar system. However, this result only holds for the poor performing funds and only for the Sharpe index and Jensen alpha performance metrics. The Morningstar system is able to better predict future performance using the more complicated 4-index alpha performance metric.”

This study appears in the current issue of the Journal of Investment Consulting. For a copy of the paper, email wcaldwell@pace.edu .

Pace is a comprehensive, independent university with campuses in New York City and Westchester County, and a Hudson Valley Center located at Stewart International Airport in New Windsor. More than 14,000 students are enrolled in undergraduate, graduate and professional degree programs in the Dyson College of Arts and Sciences, Lubin School of Business, School of Computer Science and Information Systems, School of Education, Lienhard School of Nursing and Pace Law School.

Pace University Researchers Find New Ways to Kill Oral Viruses

Over-the-counter toothpaste and mouth rinses may fight cavities
and kill bad breath, but most are virtually harmless against viruses.
Researchers at Pace University have found that by adding naturally occurring
substances – such as aloe, zinc or grapefruit extract – to oral hygiene
products, they destroy harmful viruses that lead to illness.

Contact: Public Affairs

(212) 346-1637

NEW YORK – Over-the-counter toothpaste and mouth rinses may fight cavities
and kill bad breath, but most are virtually harmless against viruses.
Researchers at Pace University have found that by adding naturally occurring
substances – such as aloe, zinc or grapefruit extract – to oral hygiene
products, they destroy harmful viruses that lead to illness.

“Adding these natural agents to mouthwashes, rinses and toothpaste can prevent
the onslaught of disease-causing microorganisms in the mouth,” said Milton
Schiffenbauer, professor of biology at Pace University’s New York City campus.
“Our findings have a significant impact on oral hygiene care and its emerging
role in chronic systemic diseases, due to the fact that many viruses found in
the body enter through the mouth.”

Recent medical research has shown that bacterial infections in the mouth may
lead to blood clots that can bring on heart attacks and strokes. Several studies
conducted since 1989 suggest that people with periodontal disease also have an
increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

Schiffenbauer and his undergraduate students at Pace University’s Dyson College
of Arts and Sciences presented their findings at the 1998 General Meeting of the
American Society for Microbiology in Atlanta in May.

For the past several years scientists in Pace University’s biology department have
conducted research on oral microbiology and viruses. They have tested a variety of
oral agents for their antiviral properties, and determined that most are ineffective.
In fact, several have the opposite effect, and actually provide protection for
viruses under certain conditions.

Their research focused on two viruses (bacteriophages T1 and T7) that attack bacteria.
Extracts of zinc, aloe, and grapefruit were separately added to toothpaste and combined
in test tubes with the viruses. After 10 minutes of storage at room temperature,
refrigeration or sub-freezing conditions, T1 and T7 viruses were virtually inactivated.

This research serves as a model to investigate viral and bacterial infections of the oral
cavity. Pace researchers will expand their study to include other common forms of viruses
that may weaken the gums and allow entry of harmful bacteria.

Pace is a comprehensive, independent University with campuses in New York City and
Westchester County. Nearly 14,000 students are enrolled in undergraduate, graduate and
professional degree programs in the Dyson College of Arts and Sciences, Lubin School of
Business, School of Computer Science and Information Systems, School of Education, School
of Law and Lienhard School of Nursing.



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Researchers at Pace University have found that by adding naturally occurring

Pace University Study Shows that Temporary Workers are Just as Motivated as Permanent Staff

If you’re concerned that your temporary staff is slacking off, don’t worry – a new Pace University study shows that contingent workers are just as motivated as permanent employees. New findings of the attitudes, behaviors and motivations of contingent workers shatter many popular myths about this sector of the labor force.

Posted by Public Affairs on March 25, 1998 at 13:51:13:

Contact: Public Affairs
(212) 346-1637
NEW YORK – If you’re concerned that your temporary staff is slacking off, don’t worry – a new Pace University study shows that contingent workers are just as motivated as permanent employees. New findings of the attitudes, behaviors and motivations of contingent workers shatter many popular myths about this sector of the labor force.

“Far from being less committed, less satisfied, less skillful than core employees, contingent workers frequently scored higher in such areas of this survey,” said Peter Allan, a professor of management at Pace University’s Lubin School of Business in New York. “Management should not overlook the potential of these workers. Despite lacking job security and other benefits, they certainly have the motivation to function productively.”

Allan surveyed 197 professional and technical workers – both core and contingent – about how they perceived their jobs. Then he assessed those attributes that are linked to motivation and performance, such as task significance, autonomy, skill variety and feedback. The Pace University study shows:

· Contingent workers scored higher in their ability to be self-motivated by their jobs. Possible reason: lacking permanent positions, contingents may have valued their jobs more; permanent workers may take their jobs for granted.
· Contingent workers scored significantly higher in task identity and job feedback. Possible reason: contingents are hired for tasks that are whole identifiable pieces of work and provide information about the effectiveness of their performance.
· Contingent workers scored higher in need for growth, suggesting that they were likely to respond more favorably to jobs that offered them challenges.

With the exception of job security, the core workers did not score significantly higher in any category, including in their satisfaction with compensation. In many cases, professional and technical contingent workers are paid better than full-time employees are.

“Generally, contingent workers do not enjoy the same kinds of benefits that full-time employees do, such as pensions or health insurance,” Allan said. “But in many cases, people choose to be contingent workers, because it allows them job flexibility. Often hired for a special project, they leave when the assignment is complete, thus freeing them to care for an aging parent or young children. This type of temporary work also can be ideal for a retired person who wants to keep a hand in the labor force.”

Businesses need to tailor work to be motivating to the contingent workers, and provide them direct feedback on their performance in order to maximize motivation and production, Allan said.

Pace University’s Lubin School of Business, with 5,500 students, offers undergraduate, graduate and doctoral degree programs, and hosts a number of research centers and institutes which extend its scholarship and teaching to a worldwide audience. The School is accredited by AACSB: the International Association for Management Education.